Carbon Fiber Magic - Hyundai Genesis Forum
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post #1 of 29 Old 03-14-2009, 08:24 PM Thread Starter
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Carbon Fiber Magic





Two decades ago, choosing lightweight materials for a performance car was simple, although somewhat limited material-wise. Still, knowledeable enthusiasts understood less weight equaled better performance. In order to shed weight, you used fiberglass & aluminum, although titanium was available, it was cost prohibitive. Smart guys used chrome-moly steel for fabricated parts, using stronger tubes where needed & paring weight elsewhere. This process is still in use today.

Breakthroughs in materials & a growing aerospace market for high-tech, lightweight products accelerated the evolution of racecar construction through the 80s. Sharp minds noticed different materials available to replace fiberglass (and in some cases, steel). The most common was a Kevlar-based composite, but had it's drawbacks, such as eating jigsaw blades during trimming. That's when carbon fiber composites began to enter the racing & general aviation marketplaces.

The Material Facts
Steel, aluminum, titanium, fiberglass, & carbon fiber all attempt to achieve the ultimate yet often elusive strength-vs-weight criteria necessary in a performance car. However, they differ from each other in the strength, stiffness, weight, fatigue resistance, corrosion properties, & so forth. For example, using aluminum or titanium in the same tube dimensions as a traditional section of steel will reduce weight, but will also produce excessive flexibility. Because of this non-ferrous metal structures typically have a larger mass than an identical steel version (esp high strength strength) in order to regain regidity.

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Last edited by Tufast; 07-19-2009 at 09:50 PM. Reason: narrative
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post #2 of 29 Old 03-15-2009, 08:38 AM
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you should just change your name to carbon fiber man
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post #3 of 29 Old 03-15-2009, 09:07 AM Thread Starter
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Quote:
Originally Posted by curtdragon View Post
you should just change your name to carbon fiber man
Or CFfast Or CFlite

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post #4 of 29 Old 03-15-2009, 09:28 AM
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why dont you cut the pages out? unless u wanna keep the mag. together..

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post #5 of 29 Old 03-15-2009, 11:33 AM Thread Starter
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Quote:
Originally Posted by MDRracing13 View Post
why dont you cut the pages out? unless u wanna keep the mag. together..
It's one of my favorite mags. As a matter of fact I keep it in a zip lock like collectors do with mags.
I'm trying the scans again, but at a higher resolution. It'll take a little longer, but I hope will work.

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post #6 of 29 Old 03-15-2009, 11:43 AM
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truu.. maybe try to take a picture of it if they're coming out bad.. the one's above are ok though

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post #7 of 29 Old 03-15-2009, 04:05 PM Thread Starter
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Ok, this is how this is how it's going to play out......I've tried scanning at the highest resolution that could be accepted & still can't make out the words on the 1st page, even after making modifictions in photobucket to enhance. So, I've decided to post each page from the article & then give a brief narrative. It'll take a while, so I'm just going to do a page here & there to continuously give you guys something to read. It'll be in this thread, so check it from time to time if your interested. I installed the 1st narrative in the 1st post below the article. So, read above to learn some about carbon fiber.

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post #8 of 29 Old 03-18-2009, 04:41 AM Thread Starter
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The Material Facts Continued

Here is an example of a dry carbon fiber kit that you could use at home. This K&N Engineering kit is
for emergency repair of carbon fiber parts & retails for $147.00.


You can see how large an autoclave is in comparison to the average person. This isn't a piece of
equipment that you would have in your garage.



Metal components usually do not fail due to a single catastrophic load. Instead they fail because of repeated stresses, called fatigue. Steel & titanium have defined minimum fatigue limits. If the stresses are smaller than these limits, these smaller forces generally don't shorten the fatigue life of the component. Aluminum is different, it has no such specific endurance limit. Each stress cycle, no matter how small, take the material a bit closer to fatigue failure. Actually, this sounds worse that it is. Engineers who use aluminum structural components usually understand this limitation & will overbuild aluminum structures.

Titanium's high strength, light weight, resilience, & resistance to corrosion make it a well suited racing commodity. Since it is a metal, many of the same mechanical properties that limit steel & aluminum also limit titanium. Metals are equally strong & stiff in all directions (engineers call the property "isotropic"). Once the cross-section geometry of a metal tube is determined to meet a given strength or stiffness requirement in one plane, an engineer lacks the freedom to meet varying demands for strength or stiffness in any other plane. In metal tubes, by setting the diameter & the wall thickness to meet bending standards, the torsional & lateral bending stiffness are automatically established.

Composites are another matter entirely. Composites consist of reinforcing woven fibers, particles, or whiskers that are embedded in a matrix of resin material. Advanced composites are composed of engineered fibers combined with polymer, metal, or ceramic matrices to form a single ply or "lamina." By combining several plies of lamina together, a "laminate" structure is formed to the desired shape. Combining these woven fabrics with a thermosetting adhesive (using the hair-like fibers of carbon, glass, & boron) creates a material with amazing strength & stiffness. They make structures that are as strong & rigid as a metal one of equal size, but with considerably less weight. Until the binder (typically some form of resin) is hardened by a chemical reaction (heat), the resin-soaked fibers can be molded or formed into virtually any shape. Obviously, this isn't always possible or affordable with metals.

There's more to this stiffness issue than first meets the eye. According to Brian Vermillion, vice president of operations at P&C Engineering Consultants, " The modulous or stiffness of a composite will depend upon the percentage of 0 degree, plus-or-minus 45 degree, & 90 degree plies in the lay-up." This means the way the fabricator orients the fibers determines the strength in different directions.

Composites are "anisotropic", which means the strength & stiffness is only realized along the axis of the fibers that can be arranged in any desired pattern. In order to absorb the variable stresses of a given component, composite structures can use multiple layers with different fiber angles for each. This puts strength only where it is needed, while minimizing weight.

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Last edited by Tufast; 07-19-2009 at 09:51 PM. Reason: spelling
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post #9 of 29 Old 03-18-2009, 04:54 AM
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That autoclave is tiny compared to the ones I 've seen at Boeing. My dad is in plumbing maintanence there and he's shown me around they have some awesome equipment there. There composite machines are cool to watch.
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post #10 of 29 Old 03-18-2009, 06:43 AM Thread Starter
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I don't care how big an autoclave is used, as long as, my CF parts are made in one. As the information I'm putting up progresses, you will understand why.

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